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Water Detection in an Open Environment: A Comprehensive Review


Muhammad Abdullah Sandhu, Asjad Amin, and Muhammad Ali Qureshi


Vol. 23  No. 1  pp. 1-10


Open surface water body extraction is gaining popularity in recent years due to its versatile applications. Multiple techniques are used for water detection based on applications. Different applications of Radar as LADAR, Ground-penetrating, synthetic aperture, and sounding radars are used to detect water. Shortwave infrared, thermal, optical, and multi-spectral sensors are widely used to detect water bodies. A stereo camera is another way to detect water and different methods are applied to the images of stereo cameras such as deep learning, machine learning, polarization, color variations, and descriptors are used to segment water and no water areas. The Satellite is also used at a high level to get water imagery and the captured imagery is processed using various methods such as features extraction, thresholding, entropy-based, and machine learning to find water on the surface. In this paper, we have summarized all the available methods to detect water areas. The main focus of this survey is on water detection especially in small patches or in small areas. The second aim of this survey is to detect water hazards for unmanned vehicles and off-sure navigation.


Water detection, Radars, Sensors, Stereo cameras., Satellite.