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Binary Classification of Hypertensive Retinopathy Using Deep Dense CNN Learning


Mostafa E. A. Ibrahim and Qaisar Abbas


Vol. 22  No. 12  pp. 98-106


A condition of the retina known as hypertensive retinopathy (HR) is connected to high blood pressure. The severity and persistence of hypertension are directly correlated with the incidence of HR. To avoid blindness, it is essential to recognize and assess HR as soon as possible. Few computer-aided systems are currently available that can diagnose HR issues. On the other hand, those systems focused on gathering characteristics from a variety of retinopathy-related HR lesions and categorizing them using conventional machine-learning algorithms. Consequently, for limited applications, significant and complicated image processing methods are necessary. As seen in recent similar systems, the preciseness of classification is likewise lacking. To address these issues, a new CAD HR-diagnosis system employing the advanced Deep Dense CNN Learning (DD-CNN) technology is being developed to early identify HR. The HR-diagnosis system utilized a convolutional neural network that was previously trained as a feature extractor. The statistical investigation of more than 1400 retinography images is undertaken to assess the accuracy of the implemented system using several performance metrics such as specificity (SP), sensitivity (SE), area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), and accuracy (ACC). On average, we achieved a SE of 97%, ACC of 98%, SP of 99%, and AUC of 0.98. These results indicate that the proposed DD-CNN classifier is used to diagnose hypertensive retinopathy.


Retinography images, Hypertensive-retinopathy, deep-neural network, Transfer learning, convolutional neural network.