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The Difference of Invariance, Reliability of The Student Engagement Scale (ESE) In Distance-Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic in Light of Some Students' Characteristics


Deyab A. Almaleki, Abdulrahman J. Alzahrani, Mohammed A. Alkhairi, Farhan A. Albalawi, Hosin A. Albogami, Easa S. Alhajory, Wadea A. Readi, Mohammed A. Idrees, Saleh M. Alshamrani, Osama A. Alwusaidi


Vol. 22  No. 8  pp. 7-14


This study aimed to test the factor structure of the measure of student participation in distance education. The study population consisted of all teachers in public education and faculty members in higher education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by applying it to a sample of bachelor's and graduate students at the college of Education at umm al-Qura University. The (ESE) was applied to a random sample representing the study population consisting of (216) respondents. The results of the study showed that the scale consists of three main factors, with showed a high degree of construct validity through fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis. The results have shown a gradual consistency of the measure’s invariance that reaches the high level of the Measurement Invariance across the gender and study groups variables.


Factor Structure, Student Engagement Scale, E-learning, Distance Learning, Covid-19.