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KAB: Knowledge Augmented BERT2BERT Automated Questions-Answering system for Jurisprudential Legal Opinions


Saud S. Alotaibi, Amr A. Munshi, Abdullah Tarek Farag, Omar Essam Rakha, Ahmad A. Al Sallab, Majid Alotaibi


Vol. 22  No. 6  pp. 346-356


The jurisprudential legal rules govern the way Muslims react and interact to daily life. This creates a huge stream of questions, that require highly qualified and well-educated individuals, called Muftis. With Muslims representing almost 25% of the planet population, and the scarcity of qualified Muftis, this creates a demand supply problem calling for Automation solutions. This motivates the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to solve this problem, which requires a well-designed Question-Answering (QA) system to solve it. In this work, we propose a QA system, based on retrieval augmented generative transformer model for jurisprudential legal question. The main idea in the proposed architecture is the leverage of both state-of-the art transformer models, and the existing knowledge base of legal sources and question-answers. With the sensitivity of the domain in mind, due to its importance in Muslims daily lives, our design balances between exploitation of knowledge bases, and exploration provided by the generative transformer models. We collect a custom data set of 850,000 entries, that includes the question, answer, and category of the question. Our evaluation methodology is based on both quantitative and qualitative methods. We use metrics like BERTScore and METEOR to evaluate the precision and recall of the system. We also provide many qualitative results that show the quality of the generated answers, and how relevant they are to the asked questions.


Islamic Fatwa, Natural Language Processing, Question Answering, Transformers.